On Athletic High
Gladiators were trained professional. They had training schools, and there were huge amount of money and effort involved in gladiatorial games. In a sense, they are like modern day soccer (or football, correctly called) players. Both play in big arenas; both have limited time period for professional lives (either being slain or retired); and both perform for entertainment. The key difference, I think, is that the former is more cruel and involves blood spilling and finishing your opponent for good, whereas the latter is comparatively more civilized and sustainable way of competing. But perhaps I am judging the ancient activity with the wrong morality; perhaps in Roman times, slaying in Colosseum is a perfect sport that affords the highest level of entertainment. If the core of human nature is forged over million years of evolution, 2000 years of modern history is too brief to make any significant change to that somewhat raw and savage core, and maybe some part of the human nature has and will always have something to do with blood. And yet if modern day football have indeed some roots in the ancient gladiator games, its existence and popularity tell us that the expression of the same core human nature can be disciplined and can grow into more refined forms, while still keeping adrenaline flowing.
But sports are much more than just adrenaline, or athletic high. There are discipline in training, team work in playing, and fairness in competing. It is often said that one can tell a person’s character directly from the way he plays soccer, such as whether he plays for himself or for the team, whether he plays for the sole purpose of winning or for the love of the game, and whether he understands the subtle but crucial difference between sportsmanship and gamesmanship.
On Match Fitness
Often hear that in order to recover from injury or long vacation, a soccer player need to train for an extended period of time until he reaches match fitness before he can play in competitive games. The idea of match fitness goes beyond just being fit or without illness. It perhaps involves a certain level of fatigue from disciplined training that builds endurance. If match fitness represents a higher form of physical fitness, there could be analogous ideas in the intellectual, emotional, and spiritual domains. The sharpness of the brain and the strength of the heart may also need constant training in order to achieve higher and higher levels of fitness.
On Sports as An Art Form
A while ago, I read the following quote in the Guardian about the 2014 Bayern Munich team:
“It’s a football that the Bundesliga has never experienced in 50 years; so delicate and precise, so playful and determined, so sophisticated and improved, so inspiring and exciting. No one has come this close to art with football in this land as Pep Guardiola.”
Strategies, tactics, and game plans aside, once a team has the physical skills and mental strength, what comes out of every game at the highest level of competition can be beauty and elegance. This blending of sport and art blurs the boundary of the savage and the refined and is perhaps the finest expression of human nature.
Benjamin Franklin did it in his twenties. Stephen Covey advised it. I think it is a good idea, so here it is: a list of habits I wish to keep and develop, or wish to learn. Some require “constant vigilance… to guard against the unremitting attraction of ancient habits… (and) force of perpetual temptation” (to quote Benjamin Franklin). Some require me to unlearn what I have learned (to rephrase Yoda, the Jedi master).
Proactivity: “Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space lies our freedom and power to choose that response. In those choices lie our growth and happiness.” (Viktor Frankl) Visualize that space, and practice looking at yourself from a distance, high and above.
Discipline: Discipline the body and the mind. “The body is a good servant but a bad master.” Rest frequently. Strive for full alertness of senses and tranquility of the mind at all time. Watch for your temper.
Patience and Persistence: Be patient and persistent in building skills and refining your work. “Rome is not built in one day”, but it has to be built.
Win-win or no deal: Remove or keep in check win-lose or lose-win mentalities, both of which are rooted in the habit of comparing and competing, and neither of which will last long in any healthy long-term relationships. When win-win is not possible, seek no deal.
Trustworthiness: Being trusted is more important than being liked. Trustworthiness necessitates character and competence.
Silence: “Speak not but what benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversations”. (Benjamin Franklin) Get rid of the habit of being argumentative, and avoid the tendency to show off. Persuasion is seldom achieved by reason alone, and pride is as troublesome as complacency.
Truth: Theory, however elegant, has to be congruent with facts. Truth necessitates integrity and honesty.
Progress: My research should always aim to advance human knowledge and/or to make something useful.
Refinement: Work of science is work of art, and vice versa.
With the world
Well-rounded: Develop appreciations for arts, literature, music, language, and other creative endeavors of all human cultures.
Informed: Keep up-to-date on important events around the world, but filter out the noise.
Concerned: No need to suffer unnecessarily, but be aware of all sufferings.
PS. Written mostly on trains
PPS. Some thoughts are better completed on the road, at a distance from daily routines.
Being an atheist, I was on several occasions asked about the question: how do you explain the question of the beginning. At first, I didn’t have an answer, because I had never seriously thought about that question. After a while, I think my initial reaction is perhaps by itself an answer already. The traditional Chinese myth doesn’t require a beginning: life goes in cycles, and souls of the dead re-enter the bodies of humans, animals, and other living creatures on earth, according to the deeds of their previous lives. Therefore, asking the question of the beginning is perhaps asking the wrong question, just like asking what the most common first name is for a Chinese person.
Despite the difference, one thing the traditional Chinese myth and the Christianity share is that some sort of decision has to be made about a soul after life, based on some sort of performance analysis of what it did while having a corporal form. Although the effect of these final analyses could be conscious or subconscious, it weighs in people’s moral choices. Good deeds will be rewarded; bad ones punished. All sounded perfectly well.
The difficulty, as always, lies in the details. Confucius’ golden rule “one should not do unto others what one does not be done to oneself” only provides the guideline for inaction, not action. As for Christianity, the first three of the Ten Commandments ask for blind belief (at least that’s how they sound to me), and to truly believe it seems to require the removal of ones’ own critical judgment. In addition, ethical norms evolve; what was once unacceptable could become acceptable. So the question becomes, is there anything that is universally applicable and timeless? And then I felt silly even asking this question.
In the end, I thought about this analogy between ethical norms for an ideal society and scientific models for physical reality. It has been said that “all models are wrong, but some are useful”. All mathematical models only partially explain reality (hence wrong, in the sense of incomplete), but useful in the occasions where their applications are fruitful. Similar things may be said about ethical norms for a society at a given time: they are perhaps not ideal (and they may never be), but in so far as keeping the society running, they are useful. As for individual, perhaps the best one can achieve is to live by the current norms but with reasonable doubt. To quote again, “Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd.” – Voltaire.
Needless to say, churches abound in Rome. The most awesome one is of course St. Peter’s Basilica. Awesome, literally: built during the period of counter-reformation, its very purpose is to showcase the papal power. It is “the building designed to awe”, writes Lonely Planet Rome. It certainly lives up to its purpose, with masters’ strokes of genius embedded in its inception: Bramanate laid the initial ground work; Michelangelo put in it the dome; Bernini’s gave it the baldachin. Beside the architectural wonders, it has perhaps the most elaborately decorated church interior, with paintings, frescoes, sculptures, ceiling and pilaster decorations. Its pure artistic beauty is breathtaking, even for non-believers. For believers, there are also masses conducted inside the praying area every day. If feeling connected with something bigger than oneself (a.k.a. the god) is the purpose of the mass, it is certainly a great place to do so.
Speaking of mass, as a non-believer, I was not allowed to sit in any of the masses inside the church. But I got a perfect chance to blend in: the New Year Mass conducted by the Pope in the St. Peter’s square. There was a huge crowd, mostly local Italian. The pope addressed the crowd from a window in a building north of the square, and the crowd listened. But obvious I couldn’t understand a single word, so I looked up his speech on the web (link, at least I think it is this one). The content of the mass is about slavery in today’s world—child labor and human trafficking, a very up-to-date topic (with numerous biblical references, of course). I guess it explains the church’s enduring popularity: It has provided moral guidance for millions for over two thousand years.
St. Peter’s Basilica is only one part of the Vatican city. The other part permitted for tourists is the Vatican Museum. The crowning jewel of the museum and “the heart of the Vatican” is the Sistine Chapel, which is most famous for Michelangelo’s paintings of stories from the Book of Genesis on the ceilings and the Last Judgment on the wall. I was slightly taken aback when the audio guide announced matter-of-factly that these paintings is the story of human history. Then I figured, well, if the brainwashing doesn’t happen here, where else?
So I had this random thought while staring at the Last Judgment: I found all those who are going to hell are dark and have twisted body, and all those who are in the heaven are full of light and have very muscular bodies. Visible physical beauty, as the narration of the audio guide claims, is an expression of virtue and hope. It then came to my mind that who actually go to heaven? In his Divine Comedy (which I only read the introduction and the first a few chapters), Dante put Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle in Limbo, the outside circle of hell, so I cannot help but wonder where Confucius might end up. Well, my conclusion was not flattery to the Chinese philosopher, to put it mildly. Perhaps Nietzsche said it better, “In heaven, all the interesting people are missing.”
Wandering among the ancient ruins in Roman Forum and Palatino, gazing at the marvelous ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and transfixed by the monumental Colosseum, I felt connected with Rome’s rich and glamorous past. With the help of some self-indulgent imagination, I can easily picture myself walking with senators of the Roman Republic along Via Sacra, or watching Michelangelo painting his masterpiece, or hearing ten thousand people cheering at gladiators slaying beasts. These illusions of grandeur easily swelled me with a sense of self-importance; it is dangerous, for mental health, among many other things. A quick read of Roman history (and the history of Italy) made me realize the disproportionately large number of Roman emperors who became insane or mad (literally, not figuratively) and how those who tried to emulate their glory often ended up on the wrong side of history. Mortal danger indeed.
So, to keep those grandiose thoughts in check, I will first write about the trivialities of my trip in Rome.
Toilets are hard to find in Rome. It is a real challenge. Public toilets are often located near main tourist attractions. The entrance fee is anywhere from fifty cents to one euro. Toilets inside museums are free. But sometimes, the queues are long, and it is not uncommon for the gents’ and ladies’ toilets to be in one room. The labels of the public toilets around St. Peter’s Basilica and St. Angelo’s Castle are not easily seen. You may have to ask the police or local workers where the toilets are. Restaurants’ toilets are only for customers, and the cleanness of the toilets is positively correlated with the price of the restaurants. Bars that sell sandwiches and pizza usually don’t have toilets. However, I once wandered into the pedestrian shopping districts near Pantheon and found a pay toilet inside an ice cream and cookie shop. All in all, the touristy places in Rome are small enough to walk but large enough for the unprepared to test the elasticity of his/her bladder. I wish google map has labels for public toilets.
Food can be expensive. It should go without saying that one should only buy things after looking at their price. But following common sense hasn’t been my strong suite. The first morning in Rome, I had a 21-euro breakfast; the food was excellent, but it was definitely overpriced. I wouldn’t have had the meal there if I had seen the menu with price before ordering. The cheapest way to eat, according to Lonely Planet, is to buy sandwiches or pizzas at bars and eat on the go. One sandwich or one slide of pizza is around 2 to 4 euros. I did just that when wandering aimlessly in the city and when I visit the Roman Forum, the Palatino, and the Colosseum.
Navigation is a piece of cake with google map at hand. Paper maps are good to have too, especially when the smartphone battery is running low.
Trains in Italy are usually crowded, often run late, and always need reservations. On my way to Milan, the train was late for 30 mins, I almost missed the connecting train to Rome. And the train to Rome was late for half an hour as well. I met a couple from Alberta on the train to Milan, and they told me that trains in Italy are usually delayed. One also has to look for the platform number inside the train station. Reservation has to be made in advance, even with train passes like Eurorail pass. It took ten euro for my trains within Italy and eleven euro for my international trains into and out of Italy. The reservation can be done either on the web or at the self service machines in train stations (in theory). I didn’t make the reservation for trains back to Stuttgart. I regretted the decision after seeing the long long queue in front of the ticket office in Rome train station (and in Florence too). My reservation from Milan to Basel somehow cannot be printed out at the self-service machine, so I had to join the queue.
Electric adapter. Unique Italian. German adapter won’t work.
Queues for Vatican Museum and St Peter’s Basilica are long. I booked tickets for the museum online beforehand, and on my first day of the museum visit when I saw the queue, I felt that was the smartest decision I have made for a long time. St. Peter ‘s Basilica, however, has no online booking system. The entrance is free. But one day in the early morning around nine o’clock, I got in without queuing.
Lastly, freshly squeezed orange juice is a must. Almost every bar has a machine for it. I saw the bar attendants squeezing the juice with the machine several times; it takes about four to five oranges to make one glass of juice. The taste of freshness is addictive.